Gut-liver crosstalk in bile-acid induced diarrhea

Research project

Description

? DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bile acid overproduction is implicated in diarrhea associated with several GI disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Bile acids in the ileum stimulate the expression and secretion of ileal Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 (FGF15 in mice), which circulates to the liver to suppress CYP7A1 enzyme that mediates the rate-limiting step of bile acid synthesis. Recent studies showed that the levels of FGF15/19 are decreased in mouse model of intestinal inflammation and in patients with IBD along with an increase in the rate of hepatic bile acid synthesis. These observations provided evidence for the key role of FGF15/19 in the pathogenesis of diarrhea during intestinal inflammation, albeit the mechanisms underlying this decrease are not fully understood. Our preliminary data provided evidence demonstrating a decrease in FGF15/19 expression and promoter activity by TNF suggesting a direct effect of proinflammatory cytokines on FGF15/19 expression. In this regards, dietary compounds that increase ileal FGF15/19 expression could be exploited to reduce the excessive production of bile acids. Our novel preliminary findings showed that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), normally found in foods such as soy and egg yolk, induced the expression of FGF15/19 providing a new lead to novel therapeutic interventions to treat bile acid-induced diarrhea. Based on these data, we hypothesized that ileal FGF15/19 expression is decreased by pro-inflammatory cytokines via transcriptional mechanisms leading to subsequent increase in hepatic CYP7A1 and exacerbating diarrhea associated with intestinal inflammation. We further hypothesized that the activation of LPA-receptors in intestinal epithelialcells triggers specific signaling pathways that lead to an increase in FGF15/19 expression and could be exploited as a therapy for bile acid-induced diarrhea. The proposed studies will utilize advanced in vitro models including intestinal organoids and human epithelial Caco2 cells cultured in 3 dimensional matrigel. FGF15 knockout mice and transgenic mice with hepatic overexpression of CYP7A1 with overproduction of bile acids will be used to investigate the impact of disrupting FGF15/19-CYP7A1 axis on diarrhea and intestinal inflammation. Studies in Aim 1 will determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the inhibition of FGF15/19 by cytokines. Proposed studies in Aim 2 will investigate the mechanisms underlying the upregulation of FGF15/19 expression and secretion by LPA and determine the LPA receptor subtype involved utilizing LPA receptor knockout mice. Aim 3 is designed to investigate the effects of LPA on bile acid homeostasis and examine the contribution of disrupting ileal FGF15-hepatic CYP7A1 to diarrhea and deregulation of intestinal ion transport in mouse models of intestinal inflammation (DSS and TNBS-induced intestinal inflammation). Unraveling the molecular mechanisms controlling crosstalk between the gut and liver will provide the basis for future clinical studies to design novel therapy for bile acid-induced diarrhea.
StatusActive
Effective start/end date8/1/167/31/20

Funding

  • National Institutes of Health: $283,500.00

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Bile Acids and Salts
Diarrhea
Liver
Inflammation
Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptors
Cytokines
Therapeutics
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Knockout Mice
Organoids
Egg Yolk
Fibroblast Growth Factors
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Ion Transport
Ileum
Transgenic Mice
Homeostasis
Up-Regulation
Epithelial Cells
Food