Vaccination with mitoxantrone-treated primary colon cancer cells enhances tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and clinical responses in colorectal liver metastases

Jianzhong Qin, Nicholas M. Kunda, Guilin Qiao, Kiara Tulla, Bellur S. Prabhakar, Ajay V. Maker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Metastases to the liver are often present at initial presentation and will form in most patients during their course of disease. We have previously demonstrated that enhanced trafficking and activation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) may improve antitumor immune responses. Thus, development of novel mechanisms to increase lymphocyte infiltration and activation are needed to improve patient outcomes. Methods: CT26 murine colorectal cancer cells were treated with physiologic levels of the potent inducer of immunogenic cell death mitoxantrone (MTX). An in situ vaccine was created with treated cells in an established model of CRLM. Cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for cell cycle evaluation and calreticulin expression. Splenic and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were isolated for phenotypic studies. Results: MTX-treatment of colon cancer cells resulted in a sub-G1 peak, inhibition of G1 cell cycle progression, and increased G2/M cell fractions while simultaneously increasing dynamic exposure of calreticulin on the cell surface (P < 0.05). Vaccination with MTX-treated cells resulted in significant decreases in CRLM formation associated with increased tumor-infiltrating leukocytes that displayed increased expression of the T cell surface activation marker CD69. Conclusions: Vaccination with MTX-treated primary colon cancer cells enhances tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and clinical responses in CRLM.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages57-64
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Volume233
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes
Mitoxantrone
Colonic Neoplasms
Vaccination
Neoplasm Metastasis
Liver
Calreticulin
Colorectal Neoplasms
Cell Cycle
Lymphocyte Activation
Helper-Inducer T-Lymphocytes
Neoplasms
Flow Cytometry
Leukocytes
Cell Death
Vaccines
T-Lymphocytes
Mortality

Keywords

  • Colon cancer
  • Immunogenic cell death
  • Immunotherapy
  • Liver metastases
  • Mitoxantrone
  • T cells
  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
  • Vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

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title = "Vaccination with mitoxantrone-treated primary colon cancer cells enhances tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and clinical responses in colorectal liver metastases",
abstract = "Background: Colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Metastases to the liver are often present at initial presentation and will form in most patients during their course of disease. We have previously demonstrated that enhanced trafficking and activation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) may improve antitumor immune responses. Thus, development of novel mechanisms to increase lymphocyte infiltration and activation are needed to improve patient outcomes. Methods: CT26 murine colorectal cancer cells were treated with physiologic levels of the potent inducer of immunogenic cell death mitoxantrone (MTX). An in situ vaccine was created with treated cells in an established model of CRLM. Cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for cell cycle evaluation and calreticulin expression. Splenic and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were isolated for phenotypic studies. Results: MTX-treatment of colon cancer cells resulted in a sub-G1 peak, inhibition of G1 cell cycle progression, and increased G2/M cell fractions while simultaneously increasing dynamic exposure of calreticulin on the cell surface (P < 0.05). Vaccination with MTX-treated cells resulted in significant decreases in CRLM formation associated with increased tumor-infiltrating leukocytes that displayed increased expression of the T cell surface activation marker CD69. Conclusions: Vaccination with MTX-treated primary colon cancer cells enhances tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and clinical responses in CRLM.",
keywords = "Colon cancer, Immunogenic cell death, Immunotherapy, Liver metastases, Mitoxantrone, T cells, Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, Vaccination",
author = "Jianzhong Qin and Kunda, {Nicholas M.} and Guilin Qiao and Kiara Tulla and Prabhakar, {Bellur S.} and Maker, {Ajay V.}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jss.2018.07.068",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "233",
pages = "57--64",
journal = "Journal of Surgical Research",
issn = "0022-4804",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Vaccination with mitoxantrone-treated primary colon cancer cells enhances tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and clinical responses in colorectal liver metastases

AU - Qin, Jianzhong

AU - Kunda, Nicholas M.

AU - Qiao, Guilin

AU - Tulla, Kiara

AU - Prabhakar, Bellur S.

AU - Maker, Ajay V.

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background: Colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Metastases to the liver are often present at initial presentation and will form in most patients during their course of disease. We have previously demonstrated that enhanced trafficking and activation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) may improve antitumor immune responses. Thus, development of novel mechanisms to increase lymphocyte infiltration and activation are needed to improve patient outcomes. Methods: CT26 murine colorectal cancer cells were treated with physiologic levels of the potent inducer of immunogenic cell death mitoxantrone (MTX). An in situ vaccine was created with treated cells in an established model of CRLM. Cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for cell cycle evaluation and calreticulin expression. Splenic and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were isolated for phenotypic studies. Results: MTX-treatment of colon cancer cells resulted in a sub-G1 peak, inhibition of G1 cell cycle progression, and increased G2/M cell fractions while simultaneously increasing dynamic exposure of calreticulin on the cell surface (P < 0.05). Vaccination with MTX-treated cells resulted in significant decreases in CRLM formation associated with increased tumor-infiltrating leukocytes that displayed increased expression of the T cell surface activation marker CD69. Conclusions: Vaccination with MTX-treated primary colon cancer cells enhances tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and clinical responses in CRLM.

AB - Background: Colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Metastases to the liver are often present at initial presentation and will form in most patients during their course of disease. We have previously demonstrated that enhanced trafficking and activation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) may improve antitumor immune responses. Thus, development of novel mechanisms to increase lymphocyte infiltration and activation are needed to improve patient outcomes. Methods: CT26 murine colorectal cancer cells were treated with physiologic levels of the potent inducer of immunogenic cell death mitoxantrone (MTX). An in situ vaccine was created with treated cells in an established model of CRLM. Cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for cell cycle evaluation and calreticulin expression. Splenic and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were isolated for phenotypic studies. Results: MTX-treatment of colon cancer cells resulted in a sub-G1 peak, inhibition of G1 cell cycle progression, and increased G2/M cell fractions while simultaneously increasing dynamic exposure of calreticulin on the cell surface (P < 0.05). Vaccination with MTX-treated cells resulted in significant decreases in CRLM formation associated with increased tumor-infiltrating leukocytes that displayed increased expression of the T cell surface activation marker CD69. Conclusions: Vaccination with MTX-treated primary colon cancer cells enhances tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and clinical responses in CRLM.

KW - Colon cancer

KW - Immunogenic cell death

KW - Immunotherapy

KW - Liver metastases

KW - Mitoxantrone

KW - T cells

KW - Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes

KW - Vaccination

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